High-Density Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Color-Related Traits of Purple Sweet Potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] Download PDF TRANSLATE Journal: Frontiers in Plant ScienceJanuary/24/2022

Flesh color (FC), skin color (SC), and anthocyanin content (AC) are three important traits being used for commodity evaluation in purple-fleshed sweet potato. However, to date, only a few reports are available on the inheritance of these traits.
In this study, we used a biparental mapping population of 274 F1 progeny generated from a cross between a dark purple-fleshed (Xuzishu8) and white-fleshed (Meiguohong) sweet potato variety for genetic analyses. Correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation among AC, SC, and FC. Medium-to-high heritability was observed for these traits.
We detected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) with the average sequencing depth of 51.72 and 25.76 for parents and progeny, respectively. Then we constructed an integrated genetic map consisting of 15 linkage groups (LGS) of sweet potato spanning on 2,233.66 cm with an average map distance of 0.71 cm between adjacent markers.
Based on the linkage map, ten major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated to FC, SC, and AC were identified on LG12 between 0 and 64.97 cm distance, such as one QTL for SC and FC, respectively, which explained 36.3 and 45.9% of phenotypic variation; eight QTLs for AC, which explained 10.5-28.5% of the variation.
These major QTLs were highly consistent and co-localized on LG12. Positive correlation, high heritability, and co-localization of QTLs on the same LG group confirm the significance of this study to establish a marker-assisted breeding program for sweet potato improvement.

Purple eggplant and zucchini color, mechanical properties, mastication, and sensory perception influenced by boiling and grilling

The present study investigated the influence of boiling and grilling deployed at 15, 30, and 45 minutes on selected eggplant and zucchini qualities. The colorants present in these vegetables contribute to their attractive appearance while presenting health-benefit components.
This study shows that boiling and grilling differently affected the color properties of the eggplant and zucchini flesh and skin, leading to discoloration. However, the multifactorial mechanisms behind this phenomenon are not yet fully uncovered.
Both boiling and grilling caused softening in examined vegetables within cooking prolongation, but different effects were observed. In the case of grilling, large- and small-deformation mechanical parameters established higher values.
Thus, grilling produced firmer samples, which was further projected on mastication and dynamic sensory perception. Although there was limited differentiation in mastication parameters, it was observable that grilled products were more mastication-demanding.
The number of chews and consumption time provided most of the information and established higher values for short-time cooking treatments and grilling. As a consequence, samples that had longer in-oral exposure times were perceived as bitter (eggplant) or sweet (zucchini).
Oppositely, boiled vegetables were juicier. Regardless of the type of vegetable or cooking method, the shortest cooking treatments resulted in products dominantly perceived as firm. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

The Expression of IbMYB1 Is Essential to Maintain the Purple Color of Leaf and Storage Root in Sweet Potato [ Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]

IbMYB1 was one of the major anthocyanin biosynthesis regulatory genes that has been identified and utilized in purple-fleshed sweet potato breeding. At least three members of this gene, namely, IbMYB1-1-2a, and -2b, have been reported.
We found that IbMYB1-2a and -2b are not necessary for anthocyanin accumulation in a variety of cultivated species (hexaploid) with purple shoots or purplish rings/spots of flesh. Transcriptomic and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) analyses revealed that persistent and vigorous expression of IbMYB1 is essential to maintain the purple color of leaves and storage roots in this type of cultivated species, which did not contain IbMYB1-2 gene members.
Compared with IbbHLH2IbMYB1 is an early response gene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sweet potato. It cannot exclude the possibility that other MYBs participate in this gene regulation networks.
Twenty-two MYB-like genes were identified from 156 MYBs to be highly positively or negatively correlated with the anthocyanin content in leaves or flesh.
Even so, the IbMYB1 was most coordinately expressed with anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Differences in flanking and coding sequences confirm that IbMYB2s, the highest similarity genes of IbMYB1, are not the members of IbMYB1.
This phenomenon indicates that there may be more members of IbMYB1 in sweet potato, and the genetic complementation of these members is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis.
The 3′ flanking sequence of IbMYB1-1 is homologous to the retrotransposon sequence of TNT1-94. Transposon movement is involved in the formation of multiple members of IbMYB1.
This study provides critical insights into the expression patterns of IbMYB1, which are involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the leaf and storage root. Notably, our study also emphasized the presence of a multiple member of IbMYB1 for genetic improvement.

An SNP Mutation of Gene RsPP Converts Petal Color From Purple to White in Radish ( Raphanus sativus L.)

Along with being important pigments that determining the flower color in many plants, anthocyanins also perform crucial functions that attract pollinators and reduce abiotic stresses. Purple and white are two different colors of radish petals.
In this study, two cDNA libraries constructed with purple and white petal plants were sequenced for transcriptome profiling.
Transcriptome results implied that the expression level of the genes participating in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway was commonly higher in the purple petals than that in the white petals.
In particular, two genes, F3’H and DFR, had a significantly higher expression pattern in the purple petals, suggesting the important roles these genes playing in radish petal coloration.
BSA-seq aided-Next Generation Sequencing of two DNA pools revealed that the radish purple petal gene (RsPP) was located on chromosome 7.
With additional genotyping of 617 F2 population plants, the RsPP was further confined within a region of 93.23 kb.
Transcriptome and Sanger sequencing analysis further helped identify the target gene, Rs392880.
 Rs392880 is a homologous gene to F3’H, a key gene in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. These results will aid in elucidating the molecular mechanism of plant petal coloration and developing strategies to modify flower color through genetic transformation.

The effect of whey protein concentration and preheating temperature on the color and stability of purple corn, grape and black carrot anthocyanins in the presence of ascorbic acid


Our objective was to explore the effects of whey protein (WP) concentration and preheating temperature on anthocyanin color expression and stability over time in the presence of ascorbic acid.
Anthocyanins from purple corn, grape or black carrot were mixed with native WP or preheated WP (40-80°C) in various concentrations (0-10 mg/mL) in pH 3 buffer containing 0.05% ascorbic acid and stored in the dark at 25 °C for 5 days. WP addition increased anthocyanin absorbance and protected anthocyanin from ascorbic acid-mediated degradation.
Increasing WP concentration resulted in lower lightness and higher chroma, hue angle and color stability. The color loss of anthocyanin solutions decreased by 40%-50% when 10 mg/mL WP was added. Native WP showed more color enhancement and protection than thermally-induced WP.
Increasing the WP preheating temperature resulted in less absorbance increase and more absorbance loss.
Anthocyanin’ half-life was improved by addition of WP in a dose dependent manner. Native WP addition (10 mg/mL) extended anthocyanin half-life by about 2 times for purple corn and grape, and 1.31 times for black carrot anthocyanin solutions.
Preheating temperature did not significantly affect anthocyanin protection by WP. WP addition might enhance anthocyanin stability in beverages containing ascorbic acid, expanding anthocyanin application in foods.

Acylated Anthocyanins from Red Cabbage and Purple Sweet Potato Can Bind Metal Ions and Produce Stable Blue Colors


Red cabbage (RC) and purple sweet potato (PSP) are naturally rich in acylated cyanidin glycosides that can bind metal ions and develop intramolecular π-stacking interactions between the cyanidin chromophore and the phenolic acyl residues.
In this work, a large set of RC and PSP anthocyanins was investigated for its coloring properties in the presence of iron and aluminum ions.
Although relatively modest, the structural differences between RC and PSP anthocyanins, i.e., the acylation site at the external glucose of the sophorosyl moiety (C2-OH for RC vs. C6-OH for PSP) and the presence of coordinating acyl groups (caffeoyl) in PSP anthocyanins only, made a large difference in the color expressed by their metal complexes.
For instance, the Al3+-induced bathochromic shifts for RC anthocyanins reached ca. 50 nm at pH 6 and pH 7, vs. at best ca. 20 nm for PSP anthocyanins. With Fe2+ (quickly oxidized to Fe3+ in the complexes), the bathochromic shifts for RC anthocyanins were higher, i.e., up to ca. 90 nm at pH 7 and 110 nm at pH 5.7.
A kinetic analysis at different metal/ligand molar ratios combined with an investigation by high-resolution mass spectrometry suggested the formation of metal-anthocyanin complexes of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 stoichiometries.

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Contrary to predictions based on steric hindrance, acylation by noncoordinating acyl residues favored metal binding and resulted in complexes having much higher molar absorption coefficients.
Moreover, the competition between metal binding and water addition to the free ligands (leading to colorless forms) was less severe, although very dependent on the acylation site(s).
Overall, anthocyanins from purple sweet potato, and even more from red cabbage, have a strong potential for development as food colorants expressing red to blue hues depending on pH and metal ion.

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