Profile of regulatory T cells and interferon γ secretion in the tumor-draining lymph node from mouse Hepa16 cells.

The tumor-draining lymph node (TDLN) is the critical and initial site of the immune decision made between activation and tolerance to tumor antigens. Tumor-reactive lymphadenopathy in TDLN has been observed for decades, but the profiles of immune regulation in these nodes remain unclear.
Both regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T cells were examined using 6 × 10(5) Hepa1-6 hepatocellular carcinoma cells implanted in footpads of syngeneic C57BL/6J mice, which formed TDLN. FOXP3(+) Tregs and CD8(+) T cells in TDLN were detected by immunohistochemical staining.
The frequency of CD4(+)FOXP3(+) T cells and FOXP3 mRNA expression were determined by flow cytometry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The interferon γ secretion ability of CD8(+) T cells in TDLN was measured by enzyme-linked immunospot technique.
There was significant expansion of Tregs and CD8(+) T cells in the tumor-draining popliteal lymph node compared with nondraining popliteal lymph node and spleen in the same mouse.
Tregs were diffusely distributed in the CD8(+) T cell compartment. The CD8(+) T cells primed in TDLN showed a strong ability of interferon γ secretion via in vitro stimulation.
These findings support the notion that Tregs suppress CD8(+) T cells by secreting cytokines such as transforming growth factor β and interleukin 10, but do not make CD8(+) T cells lose function in the TDLN. Deletion of Tregs at the secondary lymphoid organs could be crucial for the establishment of a tumor-specific immunotherapy.

[Immunological killing effect of recombicant adenovirus vector rAD-mTERT-m4-1BBL on <em>mouse</em> hepatoma cell line <em>Hepa1</em>-<em>6</em> cells co-cultured with T lymphocytes].

To study the immunological suppressing effect of recombinant adenovirus vector rAD-mTERT promotor-m4-1BBL (rAD-mTERT) on mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa1-6 cells in co-culture with T lymphocytes.
Adding recombinant adenovirus rAD, rAD-CMV-m4-1BBL (rAD-CMV) and rAD-mTERT to Hepa1-6 and L929 cells, respectively, to observe the effect of these adenoviruses on growth and apoptosis of these cells in co-culture with T lymphocytes.
Adding adenovirus significantly suppressed the growth and slightly increased apoptosis of the two types of cells (P < 0.05). rAD-mTERT promotor-m4-1BBL showed only pro-apoptotic effect on Hepa1-6 cells. When co-cultured with T lymphocytes, rAD-CMV-m4-1BBL showed promoting effect on apoptosis of the cells.
Compared with that of T cells pre-co-culture, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were proliferated, and the ratio of CD4/CD8 was significantly reduced (from 1.27 to 1.08).
Adding the recombinant adenoviruses only suppresses the cell growth, but not promotes their apoptosis. In co-culture with T lymphocytes, recombinant adenovirus vector rAD-mTERT promotor-m4-1BBL can targetingly suppress the growth and induce apoptosis of Hepa1-6 cells. The apoptosis is induced through the immunological killing effect of T lymphocytes.

Regulation of activin receptor-interacting protein 2 expression in <em>mouse</em> hepatoma <em>Hepa1</em>-<em>6</em> cells and its relationship with collagen type IV.

To investigate the regulation of activin receptor-interacting protein 2 (ARIP2) expression and its possible relationships with collagen type IV (collagen IV) in mouse hepatoma cell line Hepal-6 cells.
The ARIP2 mRNA expression kinetics in Hepal-6 cells was detected by RT-PCR, and its regulation factors were analyzed by treatment with signal transduction activators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), forskolin and A23187.
After pcDNA3-ARIP2 was transfected into Hepal-6 cells, the effects of ARIP2 overexpression on activin type II receptor (ActRII) and collagen IV expression were evaluated.
The expression levels of ARIP2 mRNA in Hapel-6 cells were elevated in time-dependent manner 12 h after treatment with activin A and endotoxin LPS, but not changed evidently in the early stage of stimulation (2 or 4 h). The ARIP2 mRNA expression was increased after stimulated with signal transduction activators such as PMA and forskolin in Hepal-6 cells, whereas decreased after treatment with A23187 (25.3% +/- 5.7% vs 48.1% +/- 3.6%, P < 0.01). ARIP2 overexpression could remarkably suppress the expression of ActRIIA mRNA in dose-dependent manner, but has no effect on ActRIIB in Hepal-6 cells induced by activin A.
Furthermore, we have found that overexpression of ARIP2 could inhibit collagen IV mRNA and protein expressions induced by activin A in Hapel-6 cells.
These findings suggest that ARIP2 expression can be influenced by various factors. ARIP2 may participate in the negative feedback regulation of signal transduction in the late stage by affecting the expression of ActRIIA and play an important role in regulation of development of liver fibrosis induced by activin.

The effects of temperature variation treatments on embryonic development: a mouse study

Since the development of ART, embryos have been cultured at 37 °C in an attempt to mimic the in vivo conditions and the average body temperature of an adult. However, a gradient of temperatures within the reproductive tract has been demonstrated in humans and several other mammalian species.
Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of temperature variation treatments on mouse embryo quality through morphokinetic events, blastocyst morphology, the relative gene expression of Igf2, Bax, Bcl2 and Apaf1 and the metabolomics of individual culture media.
Study groups consisted of 2 circadian treatments, T1 with embryos being cultured at 37 °C during the day and 35.5 °C during the night, T2 with 38.5 °C during the day and 37 °C during the night and a control group with constant 37 °C.
Our main findings are that the lower-temperature group (T1) showed a consistent negative effect on mouse embryo development with “slow” cleaving embryos, poor-quality blastocysts, a higher expression of the apoptotic gene Apaf1, and a significantly different set of amino acids representing a more stressed metabolism. On the other hand, our higher-temperature group (T2) showed similar results to the control group, with no adverse effects on blastocyst viability.

Tofacitinib and metformin reduce the dermal thickness and fibrosis in mouse model of systemic sclerosis


Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is important in the process of inflammation and fibrosis. The adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) enzyme can affect JAK/STAT pathway. Tofacitinib is a pan-JAK inhibitör. Metformin activates AMPK enzyme.
We aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of tofacitinib and metformin on IL-17 and TGF-β cytokines, skin fibrosis and inflammation in mouse model of systemic sclerosis (SSc). 40 Balb/c female mice were divided into 4 groups: (control, sham (BLM), tofacitinib and metformin).
The mice in the tofacitinib group received oral tofacitinib (20 mg/kg/daily) and mice in the metformin group received oral metformin (50 mg/kg/day) for 28 days. At the end of 4th week, all groups of mice were decapitated and tissue samples were taken for analysis.

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Histopathological analysis of skin tissue was performed, and mRNA expressions of collagen 3A, IL-17 and TGF-β were assessed by real-time PCR and ELISA. Repeated BLM injections had induced dermal fibrosis.
Moreover, the tissue levels of collagen 3A, IL-17 and TGF-β were elevated in the BLM group. Tofacitinib and metformin mitigated dermal fibrosis. They reduced dermal thickness and tissue collagen 3A, IL-17 and TGF-β levels. Tofacitinib and metformin demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in the mouse model of SSc.

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